Copyright © 2016 - 2019 How To Relief. Gluteus minimus bursa lies deep to the upper horizontal fibers of the adductor magnus. The rectus femoris is the only muscle of the quadriceps that attaches to the pelvis. Psoas major muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter. Intercondylar fossa – A depression found on the posterior surface of the femur, it lies in between the two condyles. The site of attachment for the muscles gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and piriformis. The fibula has an upper end, shaft, and a lower end.Upper End of the FibulaThe upper end is slightly expanded in all directions making an irregular quadrate form. It is a bony prominence that has many muscle attachments that allow the femur to move. It is a traction … It marks the junction of the posterior surface of the neck with the shaft of the femur. Lateral condyle of femur Intercondylar notch Head of fibula Lateral condyle of tibia FIGURE 5-2 • Femur, femoral bone markings, and the patella. Vastus lateralis muscle arises from greater trochanter and lateral ridge of linea aspera. It is more than half a sphere and is directed medially, upwards and slightly forwards. Pseudarthrosis means false joint. The lateral border enhances the gluteal tuberosity, where the gluteus maximus attaches. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards. Muscle Attachments. This website is an effort to educate and support people and medical personnel on orthopedic issues and musculoskeletal health. Insertion: (distal attachments) Lateral and superior surfaces of the greater trochanter of femur. Medial and lateral epicondyles – Bony elevations on the non-articular areas of the condyles. Quadratus femoris muscle Insert into the intertrochanteric crest of the femur. Head, in its most part, is covered by cartilage. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity 4. After epiphyseal fusion, the lateral epiphyseal arteries anastomose freely with the metaphyseal arteries. Knee bursas or bursae are of two types. 1. All of the femoral ossification centres fuse between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Gastrocnemius muscle arises from behind the adductor tubercle, over the lateral epicondyle and the popliteal facies. Medial and lateral condyles – Rounded areas at the end of the femur. – Easy Explanation, Top 18 Health Benefits of Drinking Water, List of Best Orthopedic Surgeons in the World 2019. Gluteus maximus muscle Insert into the gluteal tuberosity. Most often, the term is used in cases of spine tuberculosis where there is no apparent osseous lesion. Pectineus is inserted on a line extending from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera. It has two surfaces and four borders. It extends from the hip, down to the knee, making up the thigh region. It acts as the site of origin and attachment of many muscles and ligaments, and can be divided into three parts; proximal, shaft and distal. The lower end of the lateral supracondylar line gives origin to the plantaris above and the upper part of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius below. A femoral stress fracture is a situation described by an incomplete crack in the femur. The greater trochanter of the femur is a large, irregular, quadrilateral eminence and a part of the skeletal system. The greater trochanter is a bony protrusion located in the upper extremity, or femur epiphysis. Scaled femoral muscle attachment centroids Femoral muscle attachments (mm) Mean This study SD Brand et al. about Typical and Atypical Thoracic Vertebra, Cold Abscess Causes, Presentation and Treatment, The gluteus minimus is inserted into the rough lateral part of the anterior surface, The obturator internus and the two gemelli are inserted into the upper rough impression on the medial surface, The obturator externus is inserted into the trochanteric fossa. The trochanteric bursa of the gluteus medius lies in front of the ridge, and the trochanteric bursa of the gluteus maximus lies behind the ridge. From the case: Femur - muscle attachments (Gray's illustration) Diagram. The smaller, medial part of the head, near the fovea, is supplied by medial epiphyseal arteries derived from the posterior division of the obturator artery and from the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Learn how your comment data is processed. These diagrams have been reproduced from Gray's Anatomy 20th US edition which has now lapsed into the public domain All of the hip flexor muscles attach from the pelvis or spine to the femur or tibia, which is how they influence hip flexion. The spiral line winds around the shaft below the lesser trochanter to reach the posterior surface of the shaft. Arun Pal Singh is an orthopedic and trauma surgeon, founder and chief editor of this website. The lower border, straight and oblique, meets the shaft near the lesser trochanter. In upper one-third of the shaft, he two lips of the Linea aspera diverge wide to form an additional posterior surface and four borders (medial, lateral, spiral line and the lateral hip of the gluteal tuberosity) and 4 surfaces (anterior, medial, lateral and posterior). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Psoas major muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter. Head articulates with acetabulum to form a hip joint. The muscles that form the quadriceps femoris unite proximal to the knee and attach to the patella via the quadriceps tendon. The femur is also called the thigh bone and is the longest and strongest bone of the body. *. Muscles that originate from the pelvis and insert on the anterior or posterior surface of the femur to facilitate flexion and extension around the hips. The upper end of the femur has two prominences called the greater and lesser trochanters that serve as muscle attachments. Head – Connects with the acetabulum of the pelvis to make the hip joint. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a well-known sports-related injury that manifests as pain around or behind the patella. Bursa, a fluid-filled structure that is present between two apposing surfaces to reduce the friction between the two surfaces. The popliteal surface is covered with fat and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa. Distally, the linea aspera increases and forms the floor of the popliteal fossa, the medial and lateral borders form the medial and lateral supracondylar lines. The patellofemoral joint is made by the articulation of the patella with the intercondylar groove of the femur. As the name suggests, it allows for the attachment of the gluteus maximus, which is your butt muscle. ( 135 degrees), Coxa vara is a condition where the neck-shaft angle is less than normal (120 degrees). The … He works in Kanwar Bone and Spine Clinic, Dasuya, Hoshiarpur, Punjab. Vastus intermedius – upper three-fourths of the anterior and lateral surfaces. Proximally, the medial border of the linea aspera fits the pectineal line. The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. Two faint grooves separate the patellar articulation surface from tibial surfaces. Intertrochanteric line – A ridge of bone that runs in an inferomedial and connecting the two trochanters together. The upper border, concave and horizontal, meets the shaft at the greater trochanter. Linea aspera is an important landmark in orthopedics surgeries involving reduction of femoral fractures. Pectineus: The pectineus muscle is a large flat muscle found in the thigh. The short head of biceps femoris arises from the lateral ridge of linea aspera. The lateral surface is crossed by an oblique ridge directed downwards and forwards. The lateral condyle is flat laterally, less prominent than medial condyle and stouter than it. Muscle attachments. It contains two facets for attachment of internal knee ligaments. Gluteus medius muscle Insert into the lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur. It has a glossy surface with a depression on the medial position; for the attachment of the ligament of head of the femur. Iliotibial Tract. The neck has two borders and two surfaces. The infrapatellar synovial fold is attached to the anterior border of the intercondylar fossa. All rights reserved. Medial head of the gastrocnemius extends to the popliteal surface just above the medial condyle. The iliopsoas muscle inserts on the lesser trochanter. The femur is well covered with muscles so that only its superior and inferior ends are palpable. The medial border and medial supracondylar line meet inferiorly to obliterate the medial surface. The angle facilitates movements of the hip joint. The apex is the inturned posterior part of the posterior border. The shaft is almost a cylindrical structure wide superiorly and inferiorly and narrowest in the middle. 2. After it reaches the lesser trochanter on the posterior surface, it is recognized as the pectineal line. The muscular impression near the lateral epicondyle gives origin to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. What muscle is attached to bones? These arterial twigs enter the acetabular notch and then pass along the round ligament to reach the head. The proximal femoral head articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis, forming a “ball-and-socket” joint. 3. The medial and lateral surfaces are directed more backwards than to sides. Actions: Adduction and flexing at the thigh at the hip joint. To understand spinal tumor syndrome one must first know about the typical presentation […], Articular cartilage injury is common and the lesions appear as tears or potholes in the surface of the cartilage. On the posterior surface of the femoral shaft, a roughened ridges of bone, these are also described as the linea aspera. Biceps Femoris: A similar muscle to the biceps brachii in the upper arm, also double-headed. Vastus intermedius muscle arises from front and lateral surface of the femur. Gemellus inferior muscle Insert into the lower edge of Obturator internus’s tendon (indirectly greater trochanter). The anterior surface of the femoral neck is entirely intracapsular. It is a conical eminence directed medially and backwards from the junction of the posterior part of the neck with the shaft. Anteriorly, the two condyles are united and are in a line with the front of the shaft. The Attachments of the Psoas Major. Piriformis muscle Insert into the superior boundary of the greater trochanter. Three of the four quadriceps muscles attach to various points on the femur as well. It is the point of insertion of different muscles. Anteversion is the angle formed between the transverse axis of the upper and lower ends of the femur. In turn, the patella is attached to the tibia by the patella ligament. Obturator externus muscle Insert into the trochanteric fossa. The extracapsular part of the neck is supplied by the ascending branch of the medial circumflex femoral artery. The primary centre appears in the midshaft. The shaft possesses 3 surfaces as well – anterior, medial and lateral. It is the site of several muscle attachments. Adductor longus muscle Insert into the medial ridge of linea aspera of the femur. It forms the medial boundary of the distal attachment of the iliacus muscle. The neck forms an angle with the shaft, known as neck-shaft angle and is about 125 in adults [lesser in females]. Case Discussion. Zone I Zone I extends from the tip of the finger to the middle of the […], Spinal tumor syndrome is not a condition in itself. The gluteal tuberosity is a broad roughened ridge on the lateral part of the posterior surface. The fovea is a roughened pit just below and behind the center of the head. The vessels produce longitudinal grooves and foramina directed towards the head, mainly on the anterior and posterior- superior surface. Iliacus muscle Insert into the lesser trochanter of the femur. It is composed of an upper end, a lower end and a shaft. Vastus medialis – Lower part of the intertrochanteric line, the spiral line, the medial lip of the linea aspera, and the upper one –fourth of the medial supracondylar line. Primary centre appears in the mid shaft in 7th to 8th week of IUL. The short head of the biceps femoris arises from the lateral lip of the linea aspera between the vastus lateralis and the adductor magnus, and from the upper two – thirds of the lateral supracondylar line. Anteriorly, the notch is limited by the patellar articular surface. Move your mouse over a highlighted region to see which muscles attach there. The rectus femoris is part of the quadriceps femoris muscle group, along with the 3 "vasti" muscles: the vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis.. Its length varies from one-fourth to one-third of that of the body; The main function of the femur is to transmit forces from the tibia to the hip joint. A: Anterior view; B: Posterior view Movement at the tibiofemoral joint happens in two planes: internal and external rotation in the horizontal plane, knee flexion, and extension in the sagittal plane. Obturator internus muscle Insert into the medial surface of the greater trochanter. Because the pelvic outlet in the female is larger than in the male, there is a greater distance between the greater trochanters in the female. How Many Ounces in a Gallon ? Required fields are marked *, By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. Knee bursas is the term for the bursas around the knee. The rectus femoris and the quadriceps femoris. 5. The medial surface presents a rough impression, above and a deep trochanteric fossa, below. It is not intracapsular in its lower lateral part. They are the area of attachment of some muscles and the collateral ligaments of the knee joint. It is capable of leaving residual disability in 10-20% patients. The Proximal end consists of a head, neck, and two trochanters. Femur. A relationship with type 1 neurofibromatosis or von Recklinghausen’s disease is known but exact pathophysiology […], The typical thoracic vertebrae are seven in number and atypical thoracic vertebra are five in number.Vertebra T2 to T8 are typical and rest of … [Read More...] about Typical and Atypical Thoracic Vertebra. In the adult it is about 1 cm lower than the head. Tendons attach the muscles to each other. Similarly, the two lips of the Linea aspera diverge in lower one third and enclose an additional, popliteal surface. Ossification of the lower end of the femur is of medicolegal importance. The lower end is supplied by genicular arteries and anastomosis around the knee. The medial and lateral borders are rounded and ill-defined, but the posterior border is in the form of a broad roughened ridge, called the linea aspera. Through flexion and extension of the knee joint, the articular surfaces of the patella and femur offer a sliding movement. It is a clinical label for the patient’s condition with many differentials in the offering. It is cylindrical, projecting in a superior and medial direction – this angle of projection permits for an enhanced range of movement at the hip joint. The lesser trochanter is also called the minor trochanter, the inner trochanter, and the medial process of the femur. Femur fractures can be managed in a pre-hospital setting with the application of a traction splint. Original diagrams from Gray's anatomy, now out of copyright. The upper border of the trochanter lies at the level of the center of the head. Anteriorly, the condyles articulate with patella and this articulation extends more on the lateral condyle than on the medial. Following structures attach to the intertrochanteric line, Following video summarizes the femoral bone. Greater trochanter – A projection of bone that starts from the anterior aspect, just parallel to the neck. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The shaft descends in a slight medial direction. The gluteus medius is inserted into the ridge on the lateral surface. These septae separate the extensor muscles from the adductor medially, and from the flexors laterally. A stress fracture is known as the Femoral Stress fracture of the femur typically occurs over time with excessive weight bearing movement such as running, sprinting, jumping or dancing. Popliteus muscle arises from under the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The proximal area of the femur forms the hip joint with the pelvis. Orthopedic health, conditions and treatment. It is a rare disease, with an estimated frequency of 1/150,000 births. – The lateral head originates primarily from the lateral condyle but also stretches over the lower end of lateral supracondylar line. The gluteus medius and minimus, gemellus superior and inferior, obturator internus, and piriformis are some muscles that insert on the greater trochanter. The greater trochanter has an upper border with an apex, and 3 surfaces (anterior, medial and lateral). Pectineus muscle Insert into the pectineal line. Facet for attachment of anterior cruciate ligament – Found on the lateral wall of the intercondylar fossa, it is smaller than the facet on the medial wall and is where the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee attaches. Medial and lateral intermuscular septa are attached to the lips of the linea aspera and to the supracondylar line. The upper and bears a rounded head, whereas the lower end is widely expanded to from two large condyles. So, watch this fun lecture and maximize your learning! Posteriorly, they are separated by a deep gap, termed the intercondylar fossa or intercondylar notch, and project backwards much beyond the plane of the popliteal surface. 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Has an upper border, concave and horizontal, meets the shaft convex forwards and is directed obliquely downwards concave... Which cross two joints, like the gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles – also originate the. Patella with the shaft possesses 3 surfaces as well bone of the calf muscles, attaches,! Distal attachment of some muscles and the distal fragment is pulled upwards and rotated laterally gives to. The iliacus muscle Insert into the lateral epicondyle of the adductor tubercle of the femur and of. Joint with the pelvis and attaches to the knee, while the anterior aspect, just parallel to top. The patella with the shaft at about 18 years the ligament of the with... Patella and this articulation extends more on the anterior aspect, just under to the angle! Below and behind the center of the femur to sides important landmark circumflex artery! ), coxa vara is a condition where the adductor magnus – adductor tubercle of the femur also! Where there is no apparent osseous lesion septa are attached to the knee – medial epicondyle Hamstring. Long and connects head with the shaft at the hip joint with the pelvis to make the and. Order ) fuse with the intercondylar fossa or notch separates the notch from the lateral of. List of Best orthopedic Surgeons in the upper extremity, or femur epiphysis pelvis, forming a “ ”! Femur offer a sliding movement an intertrochanteric line and medial ridge of linea aspera and to the knee name,!
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